Maintaining a list of what is permissible (halal) and what is not (haram) regarding animals is deemed essential by Muslims who adhere to Islamic dietary guidelines. Several reasons underscore the significance of this list.

Before delving into the details, it is crucial to understand the criteria for classifying a land animal as Halal according to Islamic law:

  1. The animal must belong to a permissible species.
  2. It must be alive and healthy at the time of slaughter.
  3. The slaughtering process must be carried out by a sane adult Muslim.
  4. The name of Allah must be invoked during the slaughter.
  5. The animal should be swiftly and precisely slaughtered with a sharp knife, ensuring that the throat, windpipe, and blood vessels in the neck are cut, leading to the animal’s death without severing the spine.
  6. The blood must be fully drained from the veins.

Regarding seafood, the Hanafi and Shafi’i schools of Islamic jurisprudence hold differing views:

  • According to the Shafi’i school, all living creatures in the sea, regardless of their resemblance to fish, are considered halal. This category includes oysters, shrimp, lobsters, and crabs.
  • However, the Hanafi school adopts a more restrictive stance. They permit only fish from the sea (with fins and scales), while other sea creatures are generally deemed unlawful for consumption. Notably, opinions within the Hanafi school vary regarding prawns, with some scholars allowing them due to their resemblance to fish, while others do not.
  • Naturally poisonous animals are generally prohibited in Islamic jurisprudence due to the health risks they pose to humans. However, certain non-harmful parts of animals, especially aquatic ones, may be permissible.
  • Consulting knowledgeable Islamic scholars or Halal certification authorities is recommended to navigate these dietary guidelines effectively.

This comprehensive list empowers Muslims to make informed choices aligned with their religious beliefs, health considerations, ethical values, and cultural practices.

 
(i) Halal – Permissible To Consume

  1. Addax
  2. Albatross
  3. Alpaca
  4. Anglerfish
  5. Antelope
  6. Argali
  7. Barracuda
  8. Birds without talons
  9. Bison
  10. Blackbird
  11. Budgerigar
  12. Buffalo
  13. Bustard (Bird)
  14. Camels
  15. Catfish
  16. Caviar & Sturgeon
  17. Chicken
  18. Clam
  19. Cormorant
  20. Cow
  21. Crab (see Mud Crab in Not Halal list)
  22. Crawfish
  23. Crayfish
  24. Crane
  25. Cricket
  26. Cuttlefish
  27. Deer
  28. Dogfish
  29. Dolphin (only Shafi’i)
  30. Dove
  31. Duck
  32. Dugong (only Shafi’i)
  33. Eels (not for Maliki)
  34. Egret
  35. Egg Roe
  36. Eland
  37. Finch
  38. Fish (common fish, e.g., Salmon, Snapper etc.)
  39. Flamingo
  40. Francolin
  41. Freshwater fish (e.g., Tilapia, etc.)
  42. Gazelle
  43. Geese
  44. Gemsbok
  45. Giraffe
  46. Goat
  47. Grasshopper
  48. Grebe
  49. Gull
  50. Hagfish
  51. Hares
  52. Heron
  53. Hoopoe
  54. Horse
  55. Ibex
  56. Ibis
  57. Kangaroo—If the government protects it as a protected animal species, it is not Halal according to the rules of the land.
  58. Kingfisher
  59. Krill
  60. Lamb
  61. Llama
  62. Lobster
  63. Locust
  64. Loon
  65. Mackerel
  66. Magpie
  67. Manta ray
  68. Martlet
  69. Moorhen
  70. Moose
  71. Mussel
  72. Nightingale
  73. Octopus
  74. Oryx
  75. Ostrich
  76. Ox
  77. Oyster
  78. Parrot
  79. Partridge
  80. Peacock
  81. Pelican
  82. Penguin
  83. Petrel
  84. Pigeon
  85. Pike
  86. Puffin
  87. Quail
  88. Rabbit
  89. Reindeer
  90. Ringdove/ woodpigeon
  91. Roebuck
  92. Roller
  93. Rooster
  94. Sea urchin
  95. Scallop
  96. Shark (with limitation due to arsenic and mercury levels)
  97. Shearwater
  98. Sheep
  99. Shrimp
  100. Small birds (sparrow, swallow, finch)
  101. Snipe
  102. Spoonbill
  103. Springbok
  104. Stag
  105. Starfish
  106. Starling
  107. Stingrays
  108. Sturgeon—If the government protects it as a protected animal species, it is not Halal according to the rules of the land.
  109. Squid
  110. Stork
  111. Swan
  112. Squirrel – there are two opinions, Halal and haram, since squirrel is a vermin.
  113. Tern/ sea swallow
  114. Thrush
  115. Trout
  116. Turkey
  117. Turtledove
  118. Wallaby
  119. Waterbuck
  120. White Abalone
  121. Wildebeest
  122. Wild-range fish
  123. Wren
  124. Zebra

Note: For aquatic animals, any form of poison and intoxication needs to be removed, and for the land animal it is subjected to the Halal slaughtering process.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  (ii) Not Halal – Impermissible to consume

  1. Aardvark
  2. Alligator
  3. Animals that live underground/ ‘burrow’
  4. Ant
  5. Anteater
  6. Ape
  7. Armadillo
  8. Badger
  9. Barnacle
  10. Beaver
  11. Bee
  12. Beetle
  13. Bilby
  14. Birds with talons that use them to hunt
  15. Black bear
  16. Butterfly
  17. Caecilians
  18. Capybara
  19. Cat
  20. Caterpillar
  21. Centipede
  22. Chameleon
  23. Cheetah
  24. Chimpanzee
  25. Chinchilla
  26. Chipmunk
  27. Cicada
  28. Coati
  29. Cockle
  30. Cockroach
  31. Cony
  32. Cougar
  33. Coyote
  34. Coypu
  35. Creepy crawlies – insects – bugs
  36. Crocodile
  37. Crow/ all birds that eat beef only
  38. Dingo
  39. Dog
  40. Dolphin (Hanafi only)
  41. Donkey
  42. Dormouse
  43. Dragonfly
  44. Dugong (Hanafi only)
  45. Eagle
  46. Earwig
  47. Eel (Maliki only)
  48. Elephant
  49. Ermine
  50. Falcon
  51. Fennec
  52. Flea
  53. Fly
  54. Fox
  55. Frog
  56. Gecko
  57. Gerbil
  58. Gharial
  59. Glede
  60. Gopher
  61. Gorilla
  62. Grizzly bear
  63. Groundhog
  64. Hamster
  65. Harrier
  66. Hawk
  67. Hedgehog
  68. Hippopotamus
  69. Hornet
  70. Hyena
  71. Iguana
  72. Jackal
  73. Jaguar
  74. Jellyfish – It is Halal if there is a way to remove any substance that is poisonous.
  75. Jerboa
  76. Kinkajou
  77. Kite
  78. Kitten
  79. Komodo dragon
  80. Ladybird
  81. Leopard
  82. Lice
  83. Lion
  84. Lizard
  85. Lynx
  86. Mandrill
  87. Marten
  88. Mayfly
  89. Mice
  90. Millipede
  91. Mink
  92. Mole
  93. Mongoose
  94. Monkey
  95. Mosquito
  96. Moth
  97. Mud Crab – see also comments below
  98. Mule
  99. Muskrat
  100. Newt
  101. Nutria
  102. Opossum
  103. Orang-utan
  104. Owl
  105. Panther
  106. Peccary
  107. Periwinkle
  108. Pig
  109. Polar bear
  110. Porcupine
  111. Prairie dog
  112. Racoon
  113. Rat
  114. Rodents
  115. Sable
  116. Salamander
  117. Sannakji
  118. Scorpion
  119. Sea snail
  120. Sea squirt
  121. Seal
  122. Shrew
  123. Skunk
  124. Slug
  125. Snail
  126. Snake
  127. Spider
  128. Sponge
  129. Stoat
  130. Stone Crab
  131. Squirrel – there are two opinions, Halal and haram, since squirrel is a vermin.
  132. Termite
  133. Tick
  134. Tiger
  135. Toad
  136. Tortoise/ turtle
  137. Vermin/ pests
  138. Vole
  139. Vulture
  140. Walrus
  141. Wasp
  142. Weasel
  143. Whelk— Snail species are mostly amphibious (living in two worlds), which makes them haram. 
  144. Wolf
  145. Woodlouse
  146. Worm

 

References:

  1. Syakh Yusuf Qardawi’s Reference and Fatwa on Seafood and Others

2. Quran Al-Maidah : 96 – Seafood

أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ صَيْدُ الْبَحْرِ وَطَعَامُهُ مَتَاعًا لَّكُمْ وَلِلسَّيَّارَةِ ۖ وَحُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ صَيْدُ الْبَرِّ مَا دُمْتُمْ حُرُمًا ۗ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ

Lawful to you is the pursuit of water-game and its use for food,- for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel; but forbidden is the pursuit of land-game;- as long as ye are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb. And fear Allah, to Whom ye shall be gathered back.

3. Quran Al-An’am : 119 – Land Animal

وَمَا لَكُمْ أَلَّا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَقَدْ فَصَّلَ لَكُم مَّا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِلَّا مَا اضْطُرِرْتُمْ إِلَيْهِ ۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا لَّيُضِلُّونَ بِأَهْوَائِهِم بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُعْتَدِينَ

And why should you not eat of that upon which the name of Allah has been mentioned while He has explained in detail to you what He has forbidden you, excepting that to which you are compelled. And indeed do many lead [others] astray through their [own] inclinations without knowledge. Indeed, your Lord – He is most knowing of the transgressors.

4. Consensus of Scholars

The majority of the scholars (al-rajih `inda al-jumhur) believe that in our Religion, “the default in things is permissibility” (al-aslu fil-ashya’ al-ibaha) until proven haram.

5. According to Imam Ahmed Ibn Hanbal (RA) And Imam Shafi (RA), all living creatures that live in the sea are halal, whether they are in the form of fish or not. Imam Malik (RA) has said that all living creatures are halal except for an eel. Based on this oysters, shrimp, lobsters and crabs will be permissible to consume. (Hidayah p.442 v.4 & Al Lubab p.533 v.7)

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41 Comments

  1. Krill , mud crab, cockle ,sea snail ?? Are you sure ,

    Reply

    1. Rohaizad Hassan 26 October 2019 at 3:06 AM

      Yes, based on Shafie school.

      Reply

      1. What about horse?
        It is not mentioned in both lists.

        Reply

        1. It is updated. Thank you for the suggestion.

          Reply

    2. Rohaizad Hassan 4 March 2020 at 6:31 AM

      Mud crab living on the land is not permissible, the rest is fine according to Shafie school.

      Reply

      1. Mamintal Indar 27 March 2020 at 11:38 PM

        Greeting of Peace be upon all, kindly classify mud crabs that are categorized haram, because mud crabs grown in the pond are also mud crabs.please if possible the pictures. Sukran.

        Reply

        1. Rohaizad Hassan 18 June 2020 at 7:52 PM

          In this document showed a mud crab with a flipper leg – which is Halal https://www.fish.wa.gov.au/Documents/recreational_fishing/fact_sheets/fact_sheet_mud_crab.pdf

          the one without a flipper leg – living on the land-only is Haram based on the basic behaviour that it will eat filthy things.

          Reply

          1. Asalamualaykum my husband and I get in to these petty arguments about crab I know he says it is haram I say it is halal actually he is a Pathan from Pakistan I am German however he did bring me some king crab legs one day as a surprise and I really enjoyed it tremendously I said if crab was haram it would not come in to our house period besides he knows how much I love crab and I will show him this inshallah

          2. Hi Benazir. Waalaikumsalam. Crab is makruh for Hanafi school. Other schools of thought would be permissible. However, crab, which is dirty and spends more time on the land, in some interpretation, is Haram. To distinguish it, look at the crab legs. Usually, a crab that has flipper legs would be fine.

          3. It doesn’t matter if it has a flipper leg or not, mud crab is inedible. There is no antidote for its poison and it cannot become edible by cooking.

          4. Interpretation brother/sister. Every school of thought has their own thing. With flipper meaning, it is living more in the water. Shafie schools for example allowed it. Some poison of seafood is removable. It is a pre-condition. Islam is not advocating strict rules, it addresses all problems of humanity.

  2. Mamintal Indar 27 March 2020 at 11:39 PM

    Greeting of Peace be upon all, kindly classify mud crabs that are categorized haram, because mud crabs grown in the pond are also mud crabs.please if possible the pictures. Sukran.

    Reply

    1. The mud crabs that are Haram has no flippers shape on their legs. Any crabs with flippers leg are Halal as it spends more time in the water. Water is a property that cleanses whatever under the sea and its ecosystem. However, for poisonous marine, as long that poison can be removed, it can be consumed.

      Reply

      1. The poison cannot be removed.

        Reply

        1. Only if there is a way. Islam is not a tight religion.

          Reply

  3. why jellyfish is haram?

    Reply

    1. Rohaizad Hassan 17 June 2020 at 11:08 PM

      It is Halal if there is a way to remove any substance that is poisonous.

      Reply

  4. Rashid Yusof 8 May 2020 at 3:39 PM

    Why krill is haram? Pls advise. Tq in advance.

    Reply

    1. Rohaizad Hassan 17 June 2020 at 11:25 PM

      No. It is Halal according to Shafi’i. Most seafood is Halal according to Shafi’i except those poisonous sea creatures that the poison is non-removable.

      Reply

  5. grasshopper is halal. from hadist shahih At Tirmizi and HR. Ahmad ..

    Reply

  6. Why sea squirt is also haram to eat?

    Reply

    1. Rohaizad Hassan 17 June 2020 at 11:23 PM

      According to Shafi’i, it is Halal

      Reply

  7. Why has horse been made halal but donkey and mule not permissible

    Reply

    1. Rohaizad Hassan 19 August 2020 at 8:53 PM

      Narrated Ibn `Umar: The Prophet saw prohibited the eating of donkey’s meat.

      Reply

  8. how is krill haram?

    Reply

    1. Rohaizad Hassan 12 November 2020 at 6:55 PM

      my mistake. It was corrected earlier. Initial list was Hanafi school. Krill is accepted in Syafi’i.

      Reply

    2. Muhammad Salman 10 March 2021 at 12:22 AM

      Assalamualaikum
      Sir why dolphins and dugong are haram. If you placed them in the haram due to international restrictions, kindly specify this.

      Reply

      1. Waalaikumsalam. Shafie school has not problem with any fish or mammals living under the sea like whale, it is Halal. Hanafi school only allows fish with fin and scale.

        Reply

  9. Is porcupine haram ? And why ?

    Reply

    1. The land animal that has sharp teeth, canines, claws and others considered as Haram. Their digestive system is also different. Also, slaughtering is required for any animal where the name of God being recited. Even porcupine does not have sharp element it still doesn’t fall in the category where it can be slaughtered properly.

      Reply

  10. Squirrel is family of rabbits and it’s meat is eatable

    Reply

    1. The scholars differed in opinion with regard to the permissibility of eating a squirrel; the majority of them are of the view that it is permissible to eat it. However, some other scholars are of the view that it is forbidden to eat it because it eats with its canine teeth; this is the view of the Hanafi school, and the view of some scholars of the Shaafi’ee and Hanbali schools, whereas the Maaliki school is of the view that it is disliked.

      To conclude, the most preponderant opinion is that it is permissible to eat a squirrel according to An-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy upon him) from the Shaafi’ee school, Ibn Qudaamah and Al-Mardaawi (may Allah have mercy upon them) from the Hanbali school, and Khaleel (may Allah have mercy upon him) from the Maaliki school.

      Allah Knows best.

      Source https://www.islamweb.net/en/fatwa/92058/eating-squirrel-meat

      Reply

      1. but squirrel is a rodent and rodents are always haram. also was peacock in the halal list?

        Reply

        1. The list was originated from Hanafi scholars. I agreed that squirrel is a vermin. Thank you for the feedback.

          Reply

    1. Not makruh, as far I knew. ‘On the Day of Khaibar, the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) prohibited eating the flesh of domestic asses, but permitted horse flesh.’ There are other numerous authentic Hadiths pointing to the fact that companions were eating horse meat. Among them was the Hadith narrated by Asma’ bnt Abubakr, may Allah be pleased with them, from the authentic Hadith of Bukhari and Muslim, she said: We slaughtered a horse in the era of the prophet of Allah, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, and we ate it. In another narration: “And we were in Madina”.

      https://fiqh.islamonline.net/en/eating-horse-meat/

      Reply

  11. is sloth halal or haram? It was not mentioned in both lists

    Reply

    1. If a sloth is a protected animal, the rule of the land counts. Secondly, alongside their dangerous teeth, Two-Fingered sloths also have very claw-like fingers that are very sharp and utilized in defence. So I say it is not Halal (personal opinion).

      Reply

  12. Why whelk is haram? Kindly advise. Tq in advance.

    Reply

    1. Snail species mostly amphibious (living in two world) that makes it haram. While Hanafi school only allows fish with fin and scale, Shafie school allows all creature under the sea as long they are not harmful and that harmful can be removed.

      Reply

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