The following high-risk additives and enzyme ingredients may require Halal Certification or a Vegetarian or Vegan-approved stamp. Vegetarian or Vegan only apply if they have no animal-based materials, by-products, or alcohol (You need advanced knowledge to identify the substance because sometimes it may not appear on the product labels. It is safe to use a Halal certificate). The kosher certificate may not be applicable due to the complexity of how it has been approached.


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To name a few – High-Risk Additives:

E101 1) Riboflavin 2) Riboflavin-5′- Phosphate”
E418 Gellan Gum
E422 Glycerol / Glycerine / Glycerin
E432 Polysorbate 20
E433 Polysorbate 80
E434 Polysorbate 40
E435 Polysorbate 60
E436 Polysorbate 120
E470 Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Salts of Fatty Acids
E471 Mono-and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids
E472 Esters of Mono- and Diglycerides

  • E472a Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
  • E472b Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
  • E472c Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
  • E472d Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
  • E472e Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
  • E472f Mixed esters (tartaric, acetic) of mono- and diglycerides


E473 Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids
E474 Sucroglycerides
E475 Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids
E477 Propane-1,2-Diol Esters of Fatty Acids
E481 Sodium Stearoyl-2- Lactylate
E482 Calcium Stearoyl-2- Lactylate
E483 Stearyl Tartrate
E570 Stearic acid
E631 Disodium inosinate
E904 Shellac
E920 L-Cysteine

High-Risk Enzyme:
  • a-Amylase / Maxilase
  • Chymotrypsin
  • Lipase
  • Pepsin / Puerzym
  • Animal Rennet
  • Pancreatin / Pancreatic
  • Trypsin / Parenzymol / Trypure.

Other norms and requirements for certifications are :

  • Cheese
  • Meat / Protein
  • Gelatine
  • Enhancer, Stabilizer, Flavoring e.g., Yeast, Flavors, Aroma, Smoke Powder
  • Permissible Industry Alcohol (Certification only for Halal)
  • Cleaning Detergent e.g., Stearic Acid, Glycerine

Ingredients that may contain alcohol substance:

  • Grape seed oil,
  • Grape skin powder,
  • Tartrates,
  • Shellac,
  • Rainbow sprinkles,
  • Yeast,
  • Vanilla flavor (natural or extract),
  • Vanilla bean,
  • Carrageenan,
  • Cmc gum,
  • Vinegar etc.
  • Aspartame,
  • Pectin,
  • Soy Protein Concentrate,
  • Artificial Flavors,
  • Fermented Cider,
  • Erythritol,
  • Nucleotides,
  • Adenosine 5′ – Monophosphate,
  • Cytidine 5′ – Monophosphate,
  • Disodium Guanosine 5′ – Monophosphate,
  • Disodium Uridine 5′ – Monophosphate and Inosito5′ – Monophosphate.

Other ingredients that may contain animal derivatives:

  1. Arachidyl Proprionate – A wax that can be from animal fat. Alternatives: peanut or vegetable oil.
  2. Behenyl Alcohol—Behenyl Alcohol is a fatty alcohol obtained from natural fats (animal or vegetable fat) or oils.
  3. Beta-hydroxy acid (BHA) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a chemical preservative that is always available with a fat-based carrier. Vegetable oil is halal if used as a carrier.
  4. Biotin – In every living cell and in larger amounts in milk and yeast. Alternatives: plant sources
  5. Bone Char – Animal bone ash. Used in bone china and often to make sugar white.
  6. Butterfat is lipolysis due to the source of enzymes.
  7. Carbamide / Urea – Typically synthetic. When extracted from animals, it is excreted from urine and other bodily fluids. Used to “brown” baked goods, such as pretzels. Derivatives: Imidazolidinyl Urea, Uric Acid. Alternatives: synthetics.
  8. Calcium Stearate – is the calcium salt of stearic acid. Stearic acid can be obtained other than from vegetable fat, which makes it doubtful.
  9. Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate – It is obtained from fat.
  10. Carotene / Provitamin A / Beta Carotene—A pigment found in many animal tissues and all plants. When used as an additive, it is typically derived from plant sources. It is used as a coloring in cosmetics and in the manufacture of vitamin A.
  11. Caseinates – milk protein obtained from curding the milk. Protein sources need to be verified.
  12. Castor. Castoreum – Creamy substance with a strong odor, originally from muskrat and beaver genitals but now typically synthetic.
  13. Cetyl Alcohol, Butyl Alcohol – Cetyl alcohol and butyl alcohol are not ethyl alcohol but fat waxes.
  14. Chitosan is a fiber derived from crustacean shells. It is mushbooh for some Muslims. Alternatives include raspberries, yams, legumes, dried apricots, and many other fruits and vegetables.
  15. Collagen is a fibrous protein found in vertebrates. It is usually derived from animal tissue and is an allergen. Alternatives include soy protein, almond oil, and amla oil (see alternatives to Keratin).
  16. Elastin is a protein found in cows’ neck ligaments and aortas. It is similar to collagen but does not affect the skin’s own elasticity. Alternatives: synthetics and protein from plant tissues.
  17. Lecithin. Choline Bitartrate—A waxy substance found in the nervous tissue of all living organisms, lecithin is frequently obtained for commercial purposes from eggs and soybeans, nerve tissue, blood, milk, and corn. Choline bitartrate, the basic constituent of lecithin, is found in many animal and plant tissues and prepared synthetically. Lecithin can be used in detergent. Alternatives: soybean lecithin, synthetics.
  18. Lipoids. Lipids – Fat and fat-like substances that are found in animals and plants. Alternatives: vegetable oils.
  19. Methionine – Essential amino acid found in various proteins (usually from egg albumen and casein). Used as a texturizer and for freshness in potato chips. Alternatives: synthetics.
  20. Myristic Acid – Organic acid typically derived from nut oils but occasionally of animal origin. Used in food flavorings. Derivatives: Isopropyl Myristate, Myristal Ether Sulfate, Myristyls, Oleyl Myristate. Alternatives: nut butter, oil of lovage, coconut oil, extract from seed kernels of nutmeg, etc.
  21. Oleic Acid is obtained from various animal and vegetable fats and oils. It is usually obtained commercially from inedible tallow (animal fat). It is used in foods, detergents, and bar soap. Derivatives: Oleyl Oleate and Oleyl Stearate. Alternatives: coconut oil. (See alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils.)
  22. Propylene Glycol Monostearate – if with monostearate, it may be obtained from fat.
  23. Rennet. Rennin is an enzyme from calves or pig stomachs. It is used in cheese making, rennet custard (junket), and many coagulated dairy products. Alternatives include microbial coagulating agents, bacteria culture, lemon juice, or vegetable rennet.
  24. Retinol – Animal-derived vitamin A. Alternative: carotene.
Disclaimer: The ingredients listed on this website are examples of high-risk ingredients. It is not exhaustive and is intended for educational purposes only. The author does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of this information and is not liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising from the use of this information.
– JAKIM / HDC Malaysia
– Muslim Consumer Group USA / Canada
– Ifanca USA
– Veg Society



Posted by Rohaizad, Industry Columnist

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