Animal-based product or ingredients requires extra control due to animal disease, which is a critical element for Halal. Halal, also means safe for human consumption. Halal management system control also includes the traceability of the origin of the ingredients. Some of the diseases related to the animal are:
1) Cattle –
i. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), widely referred to as “mad cow disease,”. BSE presents a public health concern because occurrences of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans have been linked to the consumption of food containing ingredients derived from BSE-infected cattle.
ii. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe and highly contagious viral disease. It can also survive in contaminated materials and the environment for several months under the right conditions. However, according to USDA, FMD is not a public health or food safety threat.
iii. Anthrax is a highly contagious and infectious soil-borne disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a relatively large spore-forming bacteria that can infect mammals. Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores, particularly bison and beef cattle. Anthrax infections are rare in humans.
2) Swine – (Swine or pig is not permissible for Halal. This is served just as a piece of information)
i. Brucellosis— an infectious disease of swine caused by Brucella suis. It’s important to note that swine brucellosis is potentially a zoonotic disease (people can contract it).
ii. Pseudorabies is a disease of swine that can also affect cattle, dogs, cats, sheep, and goats. If present on inanimate objects, such as boots, clothing, feed, trucks, and equipment, the virus can also spread from herd to herd and farm to farm.
The most common is iii. Influenza A—Swine triple reassortant (tr) H1N1 influenza virus, trH3N2 virus, and trH1N2. Pigs share influenza viruses the same way humans share influenza viruses, through close contact, coughing, and sneezing. It is also possible that contaminated objects (such as farming equipment) can spread the virus from infected animals to non-infected animals.
iv. Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne viral disease of pigs, horses and humans. It causes encephalitis in humans, with a death rate of 25%. Half of those who survive Japanese encephalitis suffer permanent brain damage.
v.Trichinellosis is caused by a parasite. It can be spread by the feeding of illegally imported pig products to pigs and is also a human health risk.
vi. Rabies can affect pigs, in addition to many other species and humans. Infection with rabies virus is usually from a bite which then results in nervous signs in the affected animal.
3) Sheep/Goat –
i. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral disease that shows no evidence of disease in infected animals but is a serious threat to humans. Humans can become infected through the skin or by ingestion.
ii. Rabies is a severe, viral disease that can affect all mammals, including sheep and goats. People most often get rabies from the bite (direct contact) of an infected animal.
iii. Brucellosis is a contagious bacterial disease caused by members of the Brucella genus. In sheep or goats, it is usually caused by B. melitensis or B. ovis and rarely B. Abortus. However, only B. melitensis and B. abortus are considered to be a human health threat.
iv. Vesicular stomatitis is a viral disease of animals and can infect humans, who can become infected when handling infected animals (direct contact). There is an emergence of v.Schmallenberg virus in Europe. Updates from relevant authorities should be monitored. This new virus is provisionally named Schmallenberg virus (SBV) after the town in Germany where the first positive samples were found. It causes transient fever, diarrhoea and reduced milk yield in adult animals.
– USDA – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
– Beef Cattle Research Council
– NHS, UK
– DPIRD, Australia