The following High-Risk Additives and Enzymes ingredient that may require Halal Certification or Vegetarian Approved Stamp. 

High-Risk Additives:

E101 1) Riboflavin 2) Riboflavin-5′- Phosphate”
E418 Gellan Gum
E422 Glycerol / Glycerine / Glycerin
E432 Polysorbate 20
E433 Polysorbate 80
E434 Polysorbate 40
E435 Polysorbate 60
E436 Polysorbate 120
E470 Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Salts of Fatty Acids
E471 Mono-and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids
E472 Esters of Mono- and Diglycerides

  • E472a Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
  • E472b Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
  • E472c Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
  • E472d Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
  • E472e Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
  • E472f Mixed esters (tartaric, acetic) of mono- and diglycerides

E473 Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids
E474 Sucroglycerides
E475 Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids
E477 Propane-1,2-Diol Esters of Fatty Acids
E481 Sodium Stearoyl-2- Lactylate
E482 Calcium Stearoyl-2- Lactylate
E483 Stearyl Tartrate
E570 Stearic acid
E631 Disodium inosinate
E904 Shellac
E920 L-Cysteine

High-Risk Enzyme:

  • a-Amylase / Maxilase
  • Chymotrypsin
  • Lipase
  • Pepsin / Puerzym
  • Animal Rennet
  • Pancreatin / Pancreatic
  • Trypsin / Parenzymol / Trypure.

Other norms, requirements for certifications are :

  • Meat / Protein
  • Gelatine
  • Enhancer, Stabilizer, Flavoring E.g Yeast, Aroma, Smoke Powder
  • Permissible Industry Alcohol (Certification only for Halal)
  • Cleaning Detergent eg. Stearic Acid, Glycerine

Ingredients that may contain alcohol substance:

  • Grape seed oil,
  • Grape skin powder,
  • Tartrates,
  • Shellac,
  • Rainbow sprinkles,
  • Yeast,
  • Vanilla flavour (natural or extract),
  • Vanilla bean,
  • Carrageenan,
  • Cmc gum,
  • Vinegar etc.
  • Aspartame,
  • Pectin,
  • Soy Protein Concentrate,
  • Artificial Flavors,
  • Fermented Cider,
  • Erythritol,
  • Nucleotides,
  • Adenosine 5′ – Monophosphate,
  • Cytidene 5′ – Monophosphate,
  • Disodium Guanosine 5′ – Monophosphate,
  • Disodium Uridine 5′ – Monophosphate and Inosito5′ – Monophosphate.

Other ingredients that may contain animal derivatives:

  1. Arachidyl Proprionate – A wax that can be from animal fat. Alternatives: peanut or vegetable oil.
  2. Behenyl Alcohol – Behenyl Alcohol is a fatty alcohol obtained from natural fat (animal or vegetable fat) or oils.
  3. Beta-hydroxy acid (BHA) or Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) – A chemical preservative but always available with fat based carrier. Halal if vegetable oil is used as a carrier.
  4. Biotin – In every living cell and in larger amounts in milk and yeast. Alternatives: plant sources
  5. Bone Char – Animal bone ash. Used in bone china and often to make sugar white.
  6. Butter fat Lipolyzed – Due to source of enzyme.
  7. Carbamide / Urea – Typically synthetic. When extracted from animals, it is excreted from urine and other bodily fluids. Used to “brown” baked goods, such as pretzels. Derivatives: Imidazolidinyl Urea, Uric Acid. Alternatives: synthetics.
  8. Calcium Stearate – is the calcium salt of stearic acid. Stearic acid can be obtained other than from vegetable fat which makes it doubtful.
  9. Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate – It is obtained from fat.
  10. Carotene / Provitamin A / Beta Carotene – A pigment found in many animal tissues and in all plants. When used as an additive, typically derived from plant sources. Used as a colouring in cosmetics and in the manufacture of vitamin A.
  11. Caseinates – milk protein obtained from curding the milk. Protein sources need to be verified.
  12. Castor. Castoreum – Creamy substance with strong odour, originally from muskrat and beaver genitals but now typically synthetic.
  13. Cetyl Alcohol, Butyl Alcohol – Cetyl alcohol, Butyl alcohol are not ethyl alcohol but fat waxes.
  14. Chitosan – A fibre derived from crustacean shells. Mushbooh for some Muslims. Alternatives: raspberries, yams, legumes, dried apricots, many other fruits and vegetables.
  15. Collagen – Fibrous protein in vertebrates. Usually derived from animal tissue. An allergen. Alternatives: soy protein, almond oil, amla oil (see alternatives to Keratin), etc.
  16. Elastin – Protein found in the neck ligaments and aortas of cows. Similar to collagen. Can’t affect the skin’s own elasticity. Alternatives: synthetics, protein from plant tissues.
  17. Lecithin. Choline Bitartrate – Waxy substance in nervous tissue of all living organisms. But frequently obtained for commercial purposes from eggs and soybeans. Also from nerve tissue, blood, milk, corn. Choline bitartrate, the basic constituent of lecithin, is in many animal and plant tissues and prepared synthetically. Lecithin can be in detergent. Alternatives: soybean lecithin, synthetics.
  18. Lipoids. Lipids – Fat and fat-like substances that are found in animals and plants. Alternatives: vegetable oils.
  19. Methionine – Essential amino acid found in various proteins (usually from egg albumen and casein). Used as a texturizer and for freshness in potato chips. Alternatives: synthetics.
  20. Myristic Acid – Organic acid typically derived from nut oils but occasionally of animal origin. Used in food flavourings. Derivatives: Isopropyl Myristate, Myristal Ether Sulfate, Myristyls, Oleyl Myristate. Alternatives: nut butter, oil of lovage, coconut oil, extract from seed kernels of nutmeg, etc.
  21. Oleic Acid – Obtained from various animal and vegetable fats and oils. Usually obtained commercially from inedible tallow (animal fat). In foods, detergent, bar soap Derivatives: Oleyl Oleate, Oleyl Stearate. Alternatives: coconut oil. (See alternatives to Animal Fats and Oils.)
  22. Propylene Glycol Monostearate – if with monostearate, it may obtain from fat.
  23. Rennet. Rennin – Enzyme from calves’ or pig stomachs. Used in cheese making, rennet custard (junket), and in many coagulated dairy products. Alternatives: microbial coagulating agents, bacteria culture, lemon juice, or vegetable rennet.
  24. Retinol – Animal-derived vitamin A. Alternative: carotene.
– JAKIM / HDC Malaysia
– Muslim Consumer Group USA / Canada
– Ifanca USA



Posted by Rohaizad, Industry Columnist

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